Chemistry, the science that deals with the properties, composition, and structure of substances (defined as elements and compounds), the transformations they undergo, and the energy that is released or absorbed during these processes. Every substance, whether naturally occurring or artificially produced, consists of one or more of the hundred-odd species of atoms that have been identified as elements. Although these atoms, in turn, are composed of more elementary particles, they are the basic building blocks of chemical substances; there is no quantity of oxygen, mercury, or gold, for example, smaller than an atom of that substance. Chemistry, therefore, is concerned not with the subatomic domain but with the properties of atoms and the laws governing their combinations and how the knowledge of these properties can be used to achieve specific purposes.
The great challenge in chemistry is the development of a coherent explanation of the complex behaviour of materials, why they appear as they do, what gives them their enduring properties, and how interactions among different substances can bring about the formation of new substances and the destruction of old ones. From the earliest attempts to understand the material world in rational terms, chemists have struggled to develop theories of matter that satisfactorily explain both permanence and change. The ordered assembly of indestructible atoms into small and large molecules, or extended networks of intermingled atoms, is generally accepted as the basis of permanence, while the reorganization of atoms or molecules into different arrangements lies behind theories of change. Thus chemistry involves the study of the atomic composition and structural architecture of substances, as well as the varied interactions among substances that can lead to sudden, often violent reactions.
Chemistry also is concerned with the utilization of natural substances and the creation of artificial ones. Cooking, fermentation, glass making, and metallurgy are all chemical processes that date from the beginnings of civilization. Today, vinyl, Teflon, liquid crystals, semiconductors, and superconductors represent the fruits of chemical technology. The 20th century saw dramatic advances in the comprehension of the marvelous and complex chemistry of living organisms, and a molecular interpretation of health and disease holds great promise. Modern chemistry, aided by increasingly sophisticated instruments, studies materials as small as single atoms and as large and complex as DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), which contains millions of atoms. New substances can even be designed to bear desired characteristics and then synthesized. The rate at which chemical knowledge continues to accumulate is remarkable. Over time more than 8,000,000 different chemical substances, both natural and artificial, have been characterized and produced. The number was less than 500,000 as recently as 1965.
Intimately interconnected with the intellectual challenges of chemistry are those associated with industry. In the mid-19th century the German chemist Justus von Liebig commented that the wealth of a nation could be gauged by the amount of sulfuric acid it produced. This acid, essential to many manufacturing processes, remains today the leading chemical product of industrialized countries. As Liebig recognized, a country that produces large amounts of sulfuric acid is one with a strong chemical industry and a strong economy as a whole. The production, distribution, and utilization of a wide range of chemical products is common to all highly developed nations. In fact, one can say that the “iron age” of civilization is being replaced by a “polymer age,” for in some countries the total volume of polymers now produced exceeds that of iron.
The days are long past when one person could hope to have a detailed knowledge of all areas of chemistry. Those pursuing their interests into specific areas of chemistry communicate with others who share the same interests. Over time a group of chemists with specialized research interests become the founding members of an area of specialization. The areas of specialization that emerged early in the history of chemistry, such as organic, inorganic, physical, analytical, and industrial chemistry, along with biochemistry, remain of greatest general interest. There has been, however, much growth in the areas of polymer, environmental, and medicinal chemistry during the 20th century. Moreover, new specialities continue to appear, as, for example, pesticide, forensic, and computer chemistry.
Most of the materials that occur on Earth, such as wood, coal, minerals, or air, are mixtures of many different and distinct chemical substances. Each pure chemical substance (e.g., oxygen, iron, or water) has a characteristic set of properties that gives it its chemical identity. Iron, for example, is a common silver-white metal that melts at 1,535° C, is very malleable, and readily combines with oxygen to form the common substances hematite and magnetite. The detection of iron in a mixture of metals, or in a compound such as magnetite, is a branch of analytical chemistry called qualitative analysis. Measurement of the actual amount of a certain substance in a compound or mixture is termed quantitative analysis. Quantitative analytic measurement has determined, for instance, that iron makes up 72.3 percent, by mass, of magnetite, the mineral commonly seen as black sand along beaches and stream banks. Over the years, chemists have discovered chemical reactions that indicate the presence of such elemental substances by the production of easily visible and identifiable products. Iron can be detected by chemical means if it is present in a sample to an amount of 1 part per million or greater. Some very simple qualitative tests reveal the presence of specific chemical elements in even smaller amounts. The yellow colour imparted to a flame by sodium is visible if the sample being ignited has as little as one-billionth of a gram of sodium. Such analytic tests have allowed chemists to identify the types and amounts of impurities in various substances and to determine the properties of very pure materials. Substances used in common laboratory experiments generally have impurity levels of less than 0.1 percent. For special applications, one can purchase chemicals that have impurities totaling less than 0.001 percent. The identification of pure substances and the analysis of chemical mixtures enable all other chemical disciplines to flourish.
The importance of analytical chemistry has never been greater than it is today. The demand in modern societies for a variety of safe foods, affordable consumer goods, abundant energy, and labour-saving technologies places a great burden on the environment. All chemical manufacturing produces waste products in addition to the desired substances, and waste disposal has not always been carried out carefully. Disruption of the environment has occurred since the dawn of civilization, and pollution problems have increased with the growth of global population. The techniques of analytical chemistry are relied on heavily to maintain a benign environment. The undesirable substances in water, air, soil, and food must be identified, their point of origin fixed, and safe, economical methods for their removal or neutralization developed. Once the amount of a pollutant deemed to be hazardous has been assessed, it becomes important to detect harmful substances at concentrations well below the danger level. Analytical chemists seek to develop increasingly accurate and sensitive techniques and instruments.
Sophisticated analytic instruments, often coupled with computers, have improved the accuracy with which chemists can identify substances and have lowered detection limits. An analytic technique in general use is gas chromatography, which separates the different components of a gaseous mixture by passing the mixture through a long, narrow column of absorbent but porous material. The different gases interact differently with this absorbent material and pass through the column at different rates. As the separate gases flow out of the column, they can be passed into another analytic instrument called a mass spectrometer, which separates substances according to the mass of their constituent ions. A combined gas chromatograph–mass spectrometer can rapidly identify the individual components of a chemical mixture whose concentrations may be no greater than a few parts per billion. Similar or even greater sensitivities can be obtained under favourable conditions using techniques such as atomic absorption, polarography, and neutron activation. The rate of instrumental innovation is such that analytic instruments often become obsolete within 10 years of their introduction. Newer instruments are more accurate and faster and are employed widely in the areas of environmental and medicinal chemistry.
Modern chemistry, which dates more or less from the acceptance of the law of conservation of mass in the late 18th century, focused initially on those substances that were not associated with living organisms. Study of such substances, which normally have little or no carbon, constitutes the discipline of inorganic chemistry. Early work sought to identify the simple substances—namely, the elements—that are the constituents of all more complex substances. Some elements, such as gold and carbon, have been known since antiquity, and many others were discovered and studied throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries. Today, more than 100 are known. The study of such simple inorganic compounds as sodium chloride (common salt) has led to some of the fundamental concepts of modern chemistry, the law of definite proportions providing one notable example. This law states that for most pure chemical substances the constituent elements are always present in fixed proportions by mass (e.g., every 100 grams of salt contains 39.3 grams of sodium and 60.7 grams of chlorine). The crystalline form of salt, known as halite, consists of intermingled sodium and chlorine atoms, one sodium atom for each one of chlorine. Such a compound, formed solely by the combination of two elements, is known as a binary compound. Binary compounds are very common in inorganic chemistry, and they exhibit little structural variety. For this reason, the number of inorganic compounds is limited in spite of the large number of elements that may react with each other. If three or more elements are combined in a substance, the structural possibilities become greater.
After a period of quiescence in the early part of the 20th century, inorganic chemistry has again become an exciting area of research. Compounds of boron and hydrogen, known as boranes, have unique structural features that forced a change in thinking about the architecture of inorganic molecules. Some inorganic substances have structural features long believed to occur only in carbon compounds, and a few inorganic polymers have even been produced. Ceramics are materials composed of inorganic elements combined with oxygen. For centuries ceramic objects have been made by strongly heating a vessel formed from a paste of powdered minerals. Although ceramics are quite hard and stable at very high temperatures, they are usually brittle. Currently, new ceramics strong enough to be used as turbine blades in jet engines are being manufactured. There is hope that ceramics will one day replace steel in components of internal-combustion engines. In 1987 a ceramic containing yttrium, barium, copper, and oxygen, with the approximate formula YBa2Cu3O7, was found to be a superconductor at a temperature of about 100 K. A superconductor offers no resistance to the passage of an electrical current, and this new type of ceramic could very well find wide use in electrical and magnetic applications. A superconducting ceramic is so simple to make that it can be prepared in a high school laboratory. Its discovery illustrates the unpredictability of chemistry, for fundamental discoveries can still be made with simple equipment and inexpensive materials.
Many of the most interesting developments in inorganic chemistry bridge the gap with other disciplines. Organometallic chemistry investigates compounds that contain inorganic elements combined with carbon-rich units. Many organometallic compounds play an important role in industrial chemistry as catalysts, which are substances that are able to accelerate the rate of a reaction even when present in only very small amounts. Some success has been achieved in the use of such catalysts for converting natural gas to related but more useful chemical substances. Chemists also have created large inorganic molecules that contain a core of metal atoms, such as platinum, surrounded by a shell of different chemical units. Some of these compounds, referred to as metal clusters, have characteristics of metals, while others react in ways similar to biologic systems. Trace amounts of metals in biologic systems are essential for processes such as respiration, nerve function, and cell metabolism. Processes of this kind form the object of study of bioinorganic chemistry. Although organic molecules were once thought to be the distinguishing chemical feature of living creatures, it is now known that inorganic chemistry plays a vital role as well.
Organic compounds are based on the chemistry of carbon. Carbon is unique in the variety and extent of structures that can result from the three-dimensional connections of its atoms. The process of photosynthesis converts carbon dioxide and water to oxygen and compounds known as carbohydrates. Both cellulose, the substance that gives structural rigidity to plants, and starch, the energy storage product of plants, are polymeric carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis form the raw material for the myriad organic compounds found in the plant and animal kingdoms. When combined with variable amounts of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements, the structural possibilities of carbon compounds become limitless, and their number far exceeds the total of all nonorganic compounds. A major focus of organic chemistry is the isolation, purification, and structural study of these naturally occurring substances. Many natural products are simple molecules. Examples include formic acid (HCO2H) in ants, ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH) in fermenting fruit, and oxalic acid (C2H2O4) in rhubarb leaves. Other natural products, such as penicillin, vitamin B12, proteins, and nucleic acids, are exceedingly complex. The isolation of pure natural products from their host organism is made difficult by the low concentrations in which they may be present. Once they are isolated in pure form, however, modern instrumental techniques can reveal structural details for amounts weighing as little as one-millionth of a gram. The correlation of the physical and chemical properties of compounds with their structural features is the domain of physical organic chemistry. Once the properties endowed upon a substance by specific structural units termed functional groups are known, it becomes possible to design novel molecules that may exhibit desired properties. The preparation, under controlled laboratory conditions, of specific compounds is known as synthetic chemistry. Some products are easier to synthesize than to collect and purify from their natural sources. Tons of vitamin C, for example, are synthesized annually. Many synthetic substances have novel properties that make them especially useful. Plastics are a prime example, as are many drugs and agricultural chemicals. A continuing challenge for synthetic chemists is the structural complexity of most organic substances. To synthesize a desired substance, the atoms must be pieced together in the correct order and with the proper three-dimensional relationships. Just as a given pile of lumber and bricks can be assembled in many ways to build houses of several different designs, so too can a fixed number of atoms be connected together in various ways to give different molecules. Only one structural arrangement out of the many possibilities will be identical with a naturally occurring molecule. The antibiotic erythromycin, for example, contains 37 carbon, 67 hydrogen, and 13 oxygen atoms, along with one nitrogen atom. Even when joined together in the proper order, these 118 atoms can give rise to 262,144 different structures, only one of which has the characteristics of natural erythromycin. The great abundance of organic compounds, their fundamental role in the chemistry of life, and their structural diversity have made their study especially challenging and exciting. Organic chemistry is the largest area of specialization among the various fields of chemistry.
As understanding of inanimate chemistry grew during the 19th century, attempts to interpret the physiological processes of living organisms in terms of molecular structure and reactivity gave rise to the discipline of biochemistry. Biochemists employ the techniques and theories of chemistry to probe the molecular basis of life. An organism is investigated on the premise that its physiological processes are the consequence of many thousands of chemical reactions occurring in a highly integrated manner. Biochemists have established, among other things, the principles that underlie energy transfer in cells, the chemical structure of cell membranes, the coding and transmission of hereditary information, muscular and nerve function, and biosynthetic pathways. In fact, related biomolecules have been found to fulfill similar roles in organisms as different as bacteria and human beings. The study of biomolecules, however, presents many difficulties. Such molecules are often very large and exhibit great structural complexity; moreover, the chemical reactions they undergo are usually exceedingly fast. The separation of the two strands of DNA, for instance, occurs in one-millionth of a second. Such rapid rates of reaction are possible only through the intermediary action of biomolecules called enzymes. Enzymes are proteins that owe their remarkable rate-accelerating abilities to their three-dimensional chemical structure. Not surprisingly, biochemical discoveries have had a great impact on the understanding and treatment of disease. Many ailments due to inborn errors of metabolism have been traced to specific genetic defects. Other diseases result from disruptions in normal biochemical pathways.
Frequently, symptoms can be alleviated by drugs, and the discovery, mode of action, and degradation of therapeutic agents is another of the major areas of study in biochemistry. Bacterial infections can be treated with sulfonamides, penicillins, and tetracyclines, and research into viral infections has revealed the effectiveness of acyclovir against the herpes virus. There is much current interest in the details of carcinogenesis and cancer chemotherapy. It is known, for example, that cancer can result when cancer-causing molecules, or carcinogens as they are called, react with nucleic acids and proteins and interfere with their normal modes of action. Researchers have developed tests that can identify molecules likelyto be carcinogenic. The hope, of course, is that progress in the prevention and treatment of cancer will accelerate once the biochemical basis of the disease is more fully understood.
The molecular basis of biologic processes is an essential feature of the fast-growing disciplines of molecular biology and biotechnology. Chemistry has developed methods for rapidly and accurately determining the structure of proteins and DNA. In addition, efficient laboratory methods for the synthesis of genes are being devised. Ultimately, the correction of genetic diseases by replacement of defective genes with normal ones may become possible.
The simple substance ethylene is a gas composed of molecules with the formula CH2CH2. Under certain conditions, many ethylene molecules will join together to form a long chain called polyethylene, with the formula (CH2CH2)n, where n is a variable but large number. Polyethylene is a tough, durable solid material quite different from ethylene. It is an example of a polymer, which is a large molecule made up of many smaller molecules (monomers), usually joined together in a linear fashion. Many naturally occurring substances, including cellulose, starch, cotton, wool, rubber, leather, proteins, and DNA, are polymers. Polyethylene, nylon, and acrylics are examples of synthetic polymers. The study of such materials lies within the domain of polymer chemistry, a specialty that has flourished in the 20th century. The investigation of natural polymers overlaps considerably with biochemistry, but the synthesis of new polymers, the investigation of polymerization processes, and the characterization of the structure and properties of polymeric materials all pose unique problems for polymer chemists.
Polymer chemists have designed and synthesized polymers that vary in hardness, flexibility, softening temperature, solubility in water, and biodegradability. They have produced polymeric materials that are as strong as steel yet lighter and more resistant to corrosion. Oil, natural gas, and water pipelines are now routinely constructed of plastic pipe. In recent years, automakers have increased their use of plastic components to build lighter vehicles that consume less fuel. Other industries such as those involved in the manufacture of textiles, rubber, paper, and packaging materials are built upon polymer chemistry.
Besides producing new kinds of polymeric materials, researchers are concerned with developing special catalysts that are required by the large-scale industrial synthesis of commercial polymers. Without such catalysts, the polymerization process would be very slow in certain cases.
Many chemical disciplines, such as those already discussed, focus on certain classes of materials that share common structural and chemical features. Other specialties may be centred not on a class of substances but rather on their interactions and transformations. The oldest of these fields is physical chemistry, which seeks to measure, correlate, and explain the quantitative aspects of chemical processes. The Anglo-Irish chemist Robert Boyle, for example, discovered in the 17th century that at room temperature the volume of a fixed quantity of gas decreases proportionally as the pressure on it increases. Thus, for a gas at constant temperature, the product of its volume V and pressure P equals a constant number—i.e., PV = constant. Such a simple arithmetic relationship is valid for nearly all gases at room temperature and at pressures equal to or less than one atmosphere. Subsequent work has shown that the relationship loses its validity at higher pressures, but more complicated expressions that more accurately match experimental results can be derived. The discovery and investigation of such chemical regularities, often called laws of nature, lie within the realm of physical chemistry. For much of the 18th century the source of mathematical regularity in chemical systems was assumed to be the continuum of forces and fields that surround the atoms making up chemical elements and compounds. Developments in the 20th century, however, have shown that chemical behaviour is best interpreted by a quantum mechanical model of atomic and molecular structure. The branch of physical chemistry that is largely devoted to this subject is theoretical chemistry. Theoretical chemists make extensive use of computers to help them solve complicated mathematical equations. Other branches of physical chemistry include chemical thermodynamics, which deals with the relationship between heat and other forms of chemical energy, and chemical kinetics, which seeks to measure and understand the rates of chemical reactions. Electrochemistry investigates the interrelationship of electric current and chemical change. The passage of an electric current through a chemical solution causes changes in the constituent substances that are often reversible—i.e., under different conditions the altered substances themselves will yield an electric current. Common batteries contain chemical substances that, when placed in contact with each other by closing an electrical circuit, will deliver current at a constant voltage until the substances are consumed. At present there is much interest in devices that can use the energy in sunlight to drive chemical reactions whose products are capable of storing the energy. The discovery of such devices would make possible the widespread utilization of solar energy.
There are many other disciplines within physical chemistry that are concerned more with the general properties of substances and the interactions among substances than with the substances themselves. Photochemistry is a specialty that investigates the interaction of light with matter. Chemical reactions initiated by the absorption of light can be very different from those that occur by other means. Vitamin D, for example, is formed in the human body when the steroid ergosterol absorbs solar radiation; ergosterol does not change to vitamin D in the dark.
A rapidly developing subdiscipline of physical chemistry is surface chemistry. It examines the properties of chemical surfaces, relying heavily on instruments that can provide a chemical profile of such surfaces. Whenever a solid is exposed to a liquid or a gas, a reaction occurs initially on the surface of the solid, and its properties can change dramatically as a result. Aluminum is a case in point: it is resistant to corrosion precisely because the surface of the pure metal reacts with oxygen to form a layer of aluminum oxide, which serves to protect the interior of the metal from further oxidation. Numerous reaction catalysts perform their function by providing a reactive surface on which substances can react.
The manufacture, sale, and distribution of chemical products is one of the cornerstones of a developed country. Chemists play an important role in the manufacture, inspection, and safe handling of chemical products, as well as in product development and general management. The manufacture of basic chemicals such as oxygen, chlorine, ammonia, and sulfuric acid provides the raw materials for industries producing textiles, agricultural products, metals, paints, and pulp and paper. Specialty chemicals are produced in smaller amounts for industries involved with such products as pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, packaging, detergents, flavours, and fragrances. To a large extent, the chemical industry takes the products and reactions common to “bench-top” chemical processes and scales them up to industrial quantities.
The monitoring and control of bulk chemical processes, especially with regard to heat transfer, pose problems usually tackled by chemists and chemical engineers. The disposal of by-products also is a major problem for bulk chemical producers. These and other challenges of industrial chemistry set it apart from the more purely intellectual disciplines of chemistry discussed above. Yet, within the chemical industry, there is a considerable amount of fundamental research undertaken within traditional specialties. Most large chemical companies have research-and-development capability. Pharmaceutical firms, for example, operate large research laboratories in which chemists test molecules for pharmacological activity. The new products and processes that are discovered in such laboratories are often patented and become a source of profit for the company funding the research. A great deal of the research conducted in the chemical industry can be termed applied research because its goals are closely tied to the products and processes of the company concerned. New technologies often require much chemical expertise. The fabrication of, say, electronic microcircuits involves close to 100 separate chemical steps from start to finish. Thus, the chemical industry evolves with the technological advances of the modern world and at the same time often contributes to the rate of progress.